Future Business.es Virtual Incubator Platform, made possible by Red Gate Software

Here are the current Intellectual Property entires:
























































  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/cristal
  • CRISTAL, a distributed data management, is a Java description-driven system to manage data and process information for business process life cycle management. It provides a radically new strategy to implement new or to adapt existing business process systems in real time. Based on a meta-data approach, CRISTAL enables the tracking of product and process evolution in distributed environments all over the product life cycle. Business systems in many application domains can be defined, configured and instantiated to support the complete process lifecycle suitable for any evolving business process execution. Ready for licensing in the following domain: diagnostics and drug discovery in the healthcare industry.


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/cryogenic-optical-fiber-temperature-sensor
  • Cryogenic optical fiber temperature sensor: The technology consists in a simple and relatively cheap cryogenic temperature sensor, composed of an optical fiber and a Brillouin spectral analyzer for measuring one or more temperature dependent Brillouin scattering parameters. Once measured, they are used to determine the temperature. Stimulated Brillouin scattering is used for sensing down to 1K. This additionally enables distributed measurement, so that large structures and systems can be controlled using a single fiber and a single analyzing instrument. Moreover, only one bypass for the fiber is required as input to the cryogenic vessel, a key advantage in context of design and energy loss.


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/compact-cryogenic-cooling-pump
  • Compact cryogenic cooling pump: This technology is a compact cryogenic pumping system for circulating small amounts of re-condensed cryogens in the ml/s range. Cryocoolers are widely used to cool samples, sensors or superconducting magnets. This technology could be used together with cryocoolers able to re-cool and or re-condense fluids, in particular liquid helium, circulated to a “user”. It can also be applied to temperature ranges above the cryogenic. Well suited for cooling of remote objects, which may include Sensors, or superconducting magnets


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/gas-electron-multiplier
  • Gas electron multiplier: This is a detector containing a densely pierced polymer foil coated with electrodes on both sides which is able to achieve high amplification gains and performance at low cost, even under harsh conditions. This gas detector is extensively used in High Energy Physics. Applications may include: Medical Imaging, Radiation Therapy Dosimetry, High-Energy Physics, Astronomy/Astrophysics, Material Analysis, Systems for Radiation Detection and Monitoring


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/fast-front-end-readout-electronics-for-photon-and-electron
  • Fast front-end readout electronics for photon and electron counting applications: Based on developments for experiments at the LHC collider, CERN has developed various high performance readout chips for a potential use in medical imaging, life science applications and material research. In combination with ultra fast photon and electron detectors, this technology offers extremely fast and low noise photon and electron counting possibilities, providing significant advances in domains such as photon sciences and electron spectroscopy.


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/evacuable-flat-panel-solar-collector
  • Evacuable Flat Panel Solar Collector: Solar collectors, in particular flat panel solar collectors, are well-known devices which are usually used to absorb and transfer solar energy into a collection fluid. Principally, solar collectors consist of a blackened absorbing cylinder or plate contained in a housing which is frontally closed by a transparent window panel. Due to the diluted nature of solar light, in order to increase the operating temperature by reducing the thermal losses, solar collectors may be evacuated during use to eliminate gas convection and molecular conduction. Very high temperatures could also be achieved by light focusing. However, only direct light is focused, while diffuse light is lost.


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/diaphragm-system
  • Diaphragm System: This allows precise positioning and holding of one or more elements in a main element. More specifically, the technology uses a simple mechanical principle and punched laminations to position/center and hold elements of nearly any shape with extremely high precision in a cost effective way. Applications could include: Couplings, Electrical Connectors, Tubing and piping, Tool holding equipment, chucks, Heat exchangers, Work piece holding equipment


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/high-power-high-frequency-loads-for-energy-recovery
  • High power high frequency loads for energy recovery: This technology consists of several design concepts for narrowband RF high power loads producing technically usable hot outlet water or air. Conventional RF power loads produce cooling water at barely usable low pressure and moderate temperature (fragile ceramic parts, different expansion coefficients). Proposed are RF loads producing cooling water >150 °C at up to 100 bar pressure, as well as hot air up to 800 °C. One concept is the application of normal steel corrugated waveguide structures near cut-off. This concept could find practical use above several GHz. Another solution is resonant structures made of normal magnetic steel to be installed in large waveguides for frequencies of 500 MHz or lower. Similar resonant structures above 100 Mhz taking advantage of the rather high losses of normal steel may also be used in coaxial line geometries with large dimensions. In addition, there are concepts based on SiC foam and ferrite coated load.


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/cryogenic-saving-unit
  • Cryogenic Saving Unit: The technology is a novel configuration for cooling of superconductive magnets used for testing magnets and training personnel. It contains two parts, the cryostat vessel and the recovery vessel. When a quench occurs - loss of superconductivity resulting in a rapid rise of resistance and temperature - in the cryostat the pressure increases because of a restriction on the outgoing line. The liquid helium quickly goes back to the recovery vessel where it is saved for later use. The pressure in the cryostat drops when the quench passes. As a result of the hydrostatic level difference between the vessels and the pressure drop, the cryogen flows back to the cryostat and restarts the cooling.


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/high-performance-time-to-digital-converter
  • High performance time to digital converter: This technology is a high performance time to digital converter ASIC chip for use in applications requiring precise time-tagging of electronic signals, e.g. for electron and photon detection in medical imaging, laser ranging, life science or material research. This so-called HPTDC ASIC allows precise time-tagging of up to 32 input channels relative to an external clock reference of 40MHz. Based on an integrated clock multiplying Phase Locked Loop (PLL), a 32-channel Delay Locked Loop (DLL) with integrated RC-delay lines provides time interpolation down to 25ps. At CERN this technology is widely used in high resolution mode in time-of-flight particle detectors in LHC experiments (ALICE TOF) and in low resolution for drift based muon detectors (CMS DT) and a multitude of other experiments at CERN (NA48) and outside CERN (STAR, BES, OKU, KABES, HADES).


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/indico
  • Indico (Integrated Digital Conference: http://indico.cern.ch) is a web-based, multi-platform, conference lifecycle and agenda management system. It has also become the long-term archiving tool for documents and metadata related to all kinds of events that take place at CERN, and a hub for accessing local and remote collaboration services at CERN. The software is used in production at CERN (hosting > 190,000 events and around 12,000 visitors per day), publicly released under the GPLv3, and installed in more than 100 institutes world-wide.


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/invenio
  • Invenio, the integrated digital library and repository system, is a suite of applications which provides the framework and tools for building and managing an autonomous digital library server. The software is readily available to anyone, as it is free software, licensed under the GNU General Public Licence (GPL). The technology offered by the software covers all aspects of digital library management. It complies with the Open Archives Initiative metadata harvesting protocol (OAI-PMH) and uses MARC 21 as its underlying bibliographic standard. Its flexibility and performance make it a comprehensive solution for the management of document repositories of moderate to large size. At CERN, Invenio is used for: Running CERN Document Server (1 million records), Running INSPIRE (1 million records), Running ILC Document Server, Powering CERN Indico search engine, Running CERN Bulletin web site, Powering CERN Multimedia Gallery web site


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/mammogrid
  • Medical conditions such as breast cancer, and mammograms as images, are extremely complex with many dimensions of variability across the population. The European federated MAMMOgram database implemented on a GRID structure – MammoGrid - is an application of Grid technology with the aim to develop an European-wide database of mammograms and to support effective co-working between EU healthcare professionals. The MammoGrid project, now completed, was funded under the 5th European Framework Programme and lasted from 2002 to 2005. The objectives of the project were to use novel Grid-compliant and Federated-DB technologies to provide improved access to distributed data, and develop software tools to, inter alia, enable comparison of mammograms, automatically extract image information, and automatically extract tissue information.


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/medipix2
  • The Medipix2 ASIC is a high spatial, high contrast resolving CMOS pixel read-out chip working in single photon counting mode. It can be combined with different semiconductor sensors which convert the X-rays directly into detectable electric signals. This represents a new solution for various X-ray and gamma-ray imaging applications. The core concept of the Medipix2 chip was originally invented for pattern recognition in tracing of particles in the LHC. Since then the technological platform has evolved and is being developed in different application specific directions.


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/micro-scintillation-particle-detector-for-hadrontherapy
  • Micro-scintillation particle detector for hadrontherapy: The technology is a novel type of particle detector based on scintillation, with precise spatial resolution and radiation hardness. The particle detector device consists of a single microfluidic channel filled with a liquid scintillator, which is designed to define an array of optically separated scintillating waveguides, each independently coupled to a photo-detector. The device is housed within the patient treatment apparatus, positioned to intercept the beam line. During online treatment, the particle beam passes through the device and particles interact with the scintillant in the micro-channels to produce a luminous event/flash of light, which is captured by photo-detectors and recorded.


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/method-for-the-production-of-carrier-free-radioisotopes-0
  • Method for the production of carrier-free radioisotopes: The invention comprises a novel method for the large-scale production of high-purity radioisotopes, particularly those of the carrier-free and non-carrier-added varieties. Using this method, mass production of radioisotope preparations for use in life science research, medicine and industry is achievable on an industrial scale. By combining a number of innovative physical and radiochemical unit operations, the method allows the extraction and refinement of any useful isotope from a suitably activated material, in a non-destructive and reusable way. The process generates a minimum of waste (virtually no liquid waste) and permits the use of a target material, however activated, as the raw material.


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/integrated-co2-cooling-system
  • Integrated CO2 cooling system: The Integrated 2-Phase Accumulator Controlled Loop (2PACL) is a modification of the existing 2PACL system developed for the AMS-Tracker and LHCb-VELO CO2 cooling systems. The integrated 2PACL method is a different way of operating and control the original 2PACL concept. The modification makes the system simpler, more reliable, better to control and cheaper. The picture shows the integrated 2PACL principle. Here the accumulator cooling is integrated with the internal heat exchanger. The only remaining control of the system is a simple heater control in the accumulator. This makes the new principle easier to use and control. It will also be much cheaper to build.


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/micro-chemical-vias
  • Micro Chemical Vias: Previous methods to produce microvias are based on complex technologies such as laser, plasma or photo imaging. Chemical Via is a new chemical method to make microvias for high density printed multilayer circuits. Microvias are used to interconnect adjacent layers and consist of a small diameter hole (usually 70µm) with a thin metallic deposit covering their cylindrical walls to ensure the local conductivity between the bottom and top layers. Microvias of any shapes and dimensions are made possible at a low production costs. The technology was used by CERN PCB manufacturing workshop for the production of PCboards for HEP needs.


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/hood-clamshell-tool
  • Hood clamshell tool: To guarantee the sealing of a joint, junction, pipe or tube, a very precise non-destructive technique with helium is used, which allows detection and measurement of small leaks. This technique provides a low cost option and is made possible through the use of the hood clamshell tool. In the form of a specially designed open ring, this simple tool adapts to each side of the junction permitting detection of leaks using helium. It can be applied to different pipes or joints that vary in diameter and are located in complex restricted places. A video demonstration is available.


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/3d-magnetic-sensor-calibrator
  • 3D Magnetic Sensor Calibrator: This is an innovative device for calibrating magnetic field with high resolution. This calibration sensor device measures all three axes of the magnetic field, by performing a scan over the full unit sphere, independent of its orientation relative to the magnetic field. The calibration device rotates continuously around two orthogonal axes and the full range of polar and azimuthal angles is covered by a respective rotation. The parts of the device to be rotated are made very compact to fit in between pole pieces of a magnet.


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/mounting-mechanism-for-cantilever-with-high-precision
  • Mounting mechanism for cantilever with high precision positioning: The invention generally relates to a mounting mechanism for mounting an elongate element to a holding structure. The new invention solves the problem of precisely mounting a cantilever to a structure in a vaccum tight, radiation hard way, where no further alignments are needed. One particular application, and the reason for the developments at CERN is to use such mounting mechanisms to mount and precisely position drift tubes in a linear accelerator.


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/multifunctional-detector
  • Multifunctional detector: A multifunctional, versatile position-sensitive detector for measuring characteristics of a beam of particles. The technology consists of a microwire-based monitor that allows measuring non-destructively the spatial profile, divergence, and intensity of UV, x-ray, and charged particle beams, including anti-particles. It can detect: single, extremely weak light pulses intercepted by its photocathode wires; pulsed beams containing charged particles that strike the individual wires and produce secondary electrons; charged particle beams of low kinetic energy that stop and deposit their charge in the wires


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/pulse-tube-refrigeratorcryo-cooler
  • Pulse tube refrigerator/cryo-cooler: New design of a single stage Pulse tube cryo-cooler (PTC). This invention permits to discard the adjusting valves and all connecting tubes between them while preserving the phase-adjusting mechanism, resulting in the minimization of dead volume and in an unmatched compactness. This design provides an increased efficiency compared to conventional systems with similar dimensions and lower temperatures can be achieved. This cooling system suitable is for application with high radiation backgrounds. The CERN’s PTC is radiation-resistant and has a high reliability and can be remote controlled, what makes it suitable for serving LHC luminosities experiments.


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/neutron-driven-element-transmuter
  • Neutron-driven element transmuter: A beam of protons from a particle accelerator used to produce neutrons which are fired in an appropriate lead assembly. Neutrons bounce around inside the lead, losing a little energy with each bounce, such that the neutron spectrum covers a broad range of energies. Lead being the most transparent element to high energy neutrons has the advantage that these are not absorbed by lead, but much more efficiently by atoms of the sample to be transmuted. This enhanced neutron exposure may be used to produce useful radio-isotopes for medical use or, when using an opposite procedure to the one used for isotopes production, to transmute long lived isotopes such as those recovered from spent nuclear fuel. Applications: Transmutation of very long lived elements into stable, harmless elements; Isotopes for medical use.


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/niceadmin
  • Administrative privileges allow users to perform a number of administrative actions on their computers, such as installing new software or changing system settings. In order to improve computing security on Windows Desktops, the NiceAdmin software enables users to run Windows XP without administrative privileges. Users are still able to install software and change system settings on their computers through the ‘NiceAdmin’ shortcut, hence offering a way to execute most tasks with administrative privileges, but only on-demand.


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/nino
  • NINO: CERN has available a low power front-end amplifier discriminator ASIC chip for use in applications based on electron and photon detecting in medical imaging, life science or material research. This so-called NINO ASIC allows for an 8-channel input signal charge measurement through encoding discriminator pulse width with excellent timing resolution at very high rate, while at the same time providing a very low noise performance and power consumption characteristics per channel. At CERN, this technology is used for time-of-flight measurements for particle vertex reconstruction in the ALICE experiment of the LHC collider.


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/non-evaporable-getter-neg-thin-film-coatings
  • Non-evaporable getter (NEG) thin film coatings: Getters are materials widely used in industry to create and maintain vacuum. To realize ultra-high vacuum at low temperatures, a new technology has been developed based on the Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) thin film coatings. These coatings, produced by sputtering, may recover their chemical reactivity (i.e. pumping function) by heating at temperature as low as 180 °C. NEG thin-film coatings have been developed for the LHC project and have been already tested in a real accelerator at ESFR - Grenoble and ELECTRA-Sincotrone Trieste.


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/orthopix-data-compression
  • OrthoPix Data compression: OrthoPix is a method and system for compressing data arranged in a data array, and frontend readout circuits. The proposed mapping and readout technology provides a compression factor which is independent from the number of hit elements on the detector, roughly ranging from N/2 to N/4 for the preferred implementation, where N is the side size of a reference detector made by N2 sensitive elements. By reducing the total amount of data to be extracted from the detector, the proposed technology allows to increase the frame rate of the same amount, given a constant data bandwidth capability. This makes it possible to time-slice the incoming data, allowing to reconstruct the final image as a superimposition of single hits instead of an integrated image, increasing both spatial resolution and image structure information (time information is also available).


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/palladium-thin-film-coatings
  • Palladium thin-film coatings: The surface oxide layer is formed by most metals which are exposed to ambient air. This surface layer prevents any further gas adsorption. Repeated air exposure-activation cycles progressively enrich the film of the getter with oxygen, reducing its performance and shortening its operating life. The palladium coating overcomes this inconvenience. Furthermore palladium coating provide a low electron-stimulated desorption yield even without activation. Palladium coating allows obtaining reversible pumping without a thick passivation layer is formed.


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/phoswich
  • PHOSWITCH: To overcome limitations in spatial resolution of gamma cameras, the Crystal Clear Collaboration at CERN has developed and patented a technology for a gamma camera based on a double layer LSO/LuYAP crystal detector (PHOSWICHconfiguration). In combination with common position sensitive read out devices such as photomultipliers and APDs, this setup offers a depth-of-interaction (DOI) reconstruction of the impact point of the incident photon by signal shape analysis.


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/power-converter-with-integrated-energy-storage
  • Power converter with integrated energy storage: The Proton Synchrotron (PS), part of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) injection chain, can be considered as the heart of CERN accelerator complex. In order to bend the trajectory of the particles to be delivered to the LHC, the PS makes use of some 100 dipole electromagnets connected in series. The typical acceleration cycle takes 2.4 seconds. During this cycle the active power at the magnet terminals varies from plus to minus 40 MW. As this large active power variation is not acceptable to the electrical network, energy storage is needed. The old solution, based on a 80t motor-generator set acting as a flywheel, has been recently replaced by a more efficient power system including capacitive storage (called “POPS”: POwer for the PS). The innovative electrical topology developed for such a system is patented. This electrical topology is interesting because it allows applying sufficient voltage on the series connected magnets with smaller voltage applied on the semiconductors, and the energy storage in the capacitors avoids high pulsed power on the public 50 Hz net.


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/quantum-dosimetry
  • Quantum dosimetry: Quantum Dosimetry is a novel invention comprising a method, software and apparatus to determine dose, dose rate and composition of radiation. The Quantum Dosimeter can identify and categorize the individual radiation quanta by recognizing the patterns of the particles detected using a silicon pixel detector such as Medipix or Timepix. The method allows separation of different constituents of radiation, such as electrons, photons, alpha particles, neutrons, ions, muons, and others. It can also determine an energy estimate of the total deposited energy for each of the detected radiation quanta and then compute the contribution of each radiation category to the total effective radiation dose. The invention was made in the framework of the Medipix 2 Collaboration. The technology is being used for measuring radiation in the ATLAS cavern.


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/reduction-of-sey-by-magnetic-roughness
  • Reduction of SEY by magnetic roughness: There is a common problem in microwave systems of satellites and in particle accelerators, namely the multipactoring effect, a kind of electron resonance in powerful radiofrequency (RF) fields. This effect is strongly linked with the secondary electron yield (SEY) of metallic surfaces involved. To reduce SEY, the idea is to produce an electromagnetically rough surface which is mechanically very smooth. This electromagnetic roughness can be implemented by magnetizing the intermediate layer between the aluminum body of some (satellite) microwave filter and the final silver coating (RF losses). The coatings typically have a thickness of 10 µm. Magnetization can be done with a write head. This type of static magnetization pattern should have a similar effect on slow electrons close to the surface, but without is disadvantage of degrading RF losses.


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/resistive-micromegas
  • Resistive MicroMegas: This technology is an interface between a detector vessel and a readout structure for an avalanche particle detector, in particular for a MicroPattern Gas Detector (MPGD) such as the MicroMegas detector. In this invention the various elements of the structure are optimized in such a way the electronic signal is not lost through the resistive layer but is propagated to a separate plane, carrying read-out pads or strips, by capacitive coupling. There is complete separation between the Micromegas detector and the readout electronic plane. The technology: (i) Reduces the charge released by Micromegas during spark formation. It provides spark protection to electronic; (ii) Easily accommodates any readout electronics by separating detector function and electronics function; (iii) In the case of using integrated pixel chips this structure would solve a technical problem, related to the implementation of many chips, without creating dead space.


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/rf-waveguide-vacuum-valve
  • RF Waveguide Vacuum Valve: The device enables low-loss Radio Frequency power transmission in a waveguide across a gap, where a liftable instrument is positioned. Originally designed with a wall as the instrument making the device function as a valve, to solve the problem of maintaining vacuum on one side and atmospheric pressure on the other side. When the system is in operation and the valve is open, the technology provides low-loss high power RF transmission. In order to maintain one part of a RF system evacuated while doing installation and maintenance on the other part, dielectric windows are normally used. High power RF makes the dielectric break down and windows can therefore not be used. The RF waveguide vacuum valve was developed for CERN’s CLIC project to maintain vacuum and to reduce maintenance costs.


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/root
  • ROOT is a general-purpose framework that provides an object oriented set of tools with all the functionality needed to handle and analyze large amounts of data in an extremely efficient way. The ROOT system provides a set of frameworks with all the functionality needed to handle and analyze large amounts of data in a very efficient way. It defines the data as a set of objects, and then specialized storage methods are used to get direct access to the separate attributes of the selected objects, without having to touch the bulk of the data. Included in the framework are histograming methods in an arbitrary number of dimensions, curve fitting, function evaluation, minimization, graphics and visualization classes to allow the easy setup of an analysis system that can query and process the data interactively or in batch mode, as well as a general parallel processing framework that can considerably speed up any data analysis process.


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/single-layer-3d-tracking-semiconductor-detector
  • Single layer 3D tracking semiconductor detector: This technology is a pixel detector composed of a semiconductor sensor layer in which charges are generated by the interaction with charged particles and an array of read-out circuits (pixels) for detecting signals indicative of charges generated in the corresponding volume of the sensor. The time difference information between neighbouring pixels is used to determine the direction of particle. This information combined with the two-dimensional information obtained in the pixelated array make it possible to reconstruct a three-dimensional image of the particle track.


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/thermally-insulatable-vessel
  • Thermally insulatable vessel: The Thermally insulatable vessel is a simple container system for hot substances, incorporating a temperature display within the vessel’s cap or lid. The key element in this technology is an integrated infra-red thermometer developed with Micro-Electro-Mechanical systems on a common silicon substrate through micro fabrication technology. The temperature display is attached to the upper part of the cap and the electronics are fitted inside the cap. A remarkable detail is that an (IR) window is made of a transparent plastic foil created by thinning the bottom part of the cap from inside.


  • http://knowledgetransfer.web.cern.ch/technology-transfer/external-partners/titanium-polishing
  • Titanium polishing: Titanium polishing is a process to polish titanium and titanium alloys to a high degree of surface smoothness, typically of a nanometer level. The polishing method is based on an electrolytic process in which material is removed from the surface by a chemical reaction powered by applying a low voltage. Technology used at CERN to polish the cavities of the accelerators to obtain an ultra smooth surface and to avoid sparks.

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